Novice gardeners today are increasingly choosing apple trees that are grown on dwarf rootstocks, they are also called dwarf apple trees. The fact is that such an apple tree does not cause trouble to care for, and it is also very compact and therefore takes up very little space. Plus, such plants begin to bear fruit already in the third year after planting in open soil, they need less nutrients, and even those areas where groundwater is relatively high are suitable for planting. Moreover, the growing season of such apple trees is somewhat shorter than that of ordinary apple trees. In this regard, a dwarf apple tree can prepare for the winter period much better.
The dwarf apple tree is not a new type of apple tree. To obtain such a plant, a varietal cutting is taken, which is grafted onto a clonal dwarf stock. The resulting apple trees do not exceed 250 cm in height. The average life span of such apple trees, if properly cared for, is 20 to 30 years, while ordinary vigorous apple trees live slightly longer - from 35 to 40 years.
It happens that columnar apple trees are mistaken for dwarf trees, but these are different forms. Distinguish between medium-sized and vigorous columnar apple trees, however, there are also dwarf columnar apple trees, but this plant form does not have a crown. And in a dwarf apple tree, the crown shape is the same as that of an ordinary apple tree, only it is slightly smaller.
The first harvest on the apple tree Glory to the winners. (dwarf)
Planting a dwarf apple tree in open soil is practically no different from planting an ordinary apple tree. It is quite difficult to inoculate and grow a dwarf apple tree seedling with your own hands, since in this case you will need not only strength and time, but also certain knowledge. The easiest way is to buy a seedling from a nursery that deserves your trust. When purchasing a seedling from a random seller, you should be extremely careful not to buy an ordinary game instead of a dwarf apple tree. Examine the seedling. Between the stem and the root collar of the plant, the correct seedling should have a clearly visible knee-shaped protrusion. This protrusion is the site of the graft with a fused cut above the grafted kidney. A grafted two-year-old seedling of a dwarf apple tree has at least 4 developed branches, at their tips there are large buds, while the stem does not exceed half a meter in height. And a two-year-old wild game seedling has many sharp branches on which there are no buds. The root system of a dwarf seedling should consist of small elastic roots, while it should be borne in mind that all wild seedlings have a taproot.
For the purchased seedling, the root system should be wrapped with a damp cloth, and wrapped on top with plastic wrap, this will protect the roots from possible injuries during transportation. Before directly planting a seedling in open soil, it is necessary to shorten its branches. Planting a bonsai seedling can be done at the beginning of the spring period or in the fall, while the plant is dormant.
Seedlings are planted in open soil in autumn from the second half of September to mid-October, at which time the plant begins to enter a state of dormancy.
For planting, you should choose a well-lit area or one that is in partial shade. It must have reliable protection from drafts, while the groundwater must be located at a depth of at least 150 cm. Wet and loose soil is suitable for planting, it is also very important that it is saturated with nutrients, since the root system of such a tree is superficial, therefore " it cannot eat, penetrating into the deep layers of the soil. The best option for planting is medium or light loam.
The depth of the planting pit should reach 0.7 m, and its diameter - 0.6 m. When preparing the pit, the top layer of soil about 20 centimeters thick must be thrown aside. It should be combined with a pair of buckets of peat or humus, 0.7 kg of wood ash and 0.6 kg of superphosphate. A stake must be installed in the middle of the prepared pit, after which a mixture of the top layer of soil with fertilizers is poured around it with a mound. On top of this nutrient mixture, a layer of simple soil from the top layer is poured, its thickness should be equal to 20-30 mm. After that, a seedling should be installed on the hill. When its roots are carefully straightened, the hole must be covered with soil from the top layer not mixed with fertilizers. It should be noted that the grafting site after planting should rise 30 mm above the soil surface. You also need to remember that the roots of the seedling should in no case come into contact with the soil mixture in which the fertilizers are located, as this can lead to burns on them. When planting several seedlings, a distance of at least 300 cm should be observed between them.
When the apple tree is planted, you need to compact the soil well in the trunk circle, for this it must be trampled down. Then you need to retreat from the trunk about 50 centimeters and make a roller fifteen centimeters high. Then pour 2.5–3 buckets of water into the trunk circle. After the liquid is completely absorbed into the soil, the surface of the trunk circle must be covered with a three-centimeter layer of mulch (peat or humus). After that, the plant is tied to the peg.
Planting a dwarf apple tree on an M-9 stock followed by pruning
Planting a seedling of a dwarf apple tree in springtime should be done when the soil has already completely thawed, but the buds should not yet begin to bloom. It is recommended to prepare the planting pit in advance, even in autumn, while it will be necessary to add soil mixture with fertilizers to it. In winter, the soil will have time to settle well and compact, and the fertilizers will be able to dissolve during this time.
In spring, in the middle of the pit, it is necessary to install a stake, around which the soil is poured from the top layer with a mound. A seedling is installed on this hill and further planting is carried out according to the same plan as in the autumn.
Compared to ordinary apple trees, growing a dwarf apple tree is much easier, but this is only if you know all the nuances. At the beginning of the spring period, the branches of newly planted seedlings should be slightly shortened. If the tree has not been growing for the first year, then at this time it will need sanitary and formative pruning. Before sap flow begins, trees should be treated to prevent pests and diseases. They also install trapping belts on the trunks, which are designed to catch pests.
In such apple trees, the root system is superficial, in this regard, it is very important to ensure that the soil surface in the near-trunk circle does not dry out. When the plant is watered, it is necessary to loosen the soil surface in the near-stem circle to a shallow depth (from 50 to 70 mm). To reduce the number of waterings and prevent rapid evaporation of moisture, it is recommended to cover the surface of the trunk circle with a layer of mulch. In April, on a fine day, you should whitewash the trunk and the base of the skeletal branches of the tree; lime is used for this. In spring, you should also feed the apple tree with a complex or nitrogen-containing fertilizer.
In the summer, special attention should be paid to watering the apple tree. Remember that the soil in the trunk circle should not dry out. Also, in the summer, the plant is often attacked by pests, and in order to get rid of them, you can use both folk remedies and chemicals.
In summer, a dwarf apple tree is most often fed on a leaf, while it is recommended to add trace elements to the nutrient solution, especially at this time the tree needs iron. During the period of fruit filling, do not forget to install supports so that the branches weighed down with apples do not break.
In autumn, most varieties of dwarf apple trees ripen. In this regard, the main occupation in the autumn months is harvesting. Please note that the trunk circle at this time must be constantly clean, therefore, fallen leaves and fruits, as well as other debris, must be promptly removed from it. When the crop is harvested, the tree must be fed using mineral fertilizers for this, and sanitary pruning is also performed.
After the near-trunk circle is cleared of plant debris (foliage, cut branches, etc.), it must be loosened, which will lead to a violation of the thermal insulation of harmful insects that have settled down for the winter in the soil. In the middle of the autumn period, the apple tree should be treated as a preventive measure against pests and diseases. In late autumn, you need to prepare the tree for wintering.
In spring, before the buds swell, apple trees need to be treated with Nitrafen solution or Bordeaux mixture (1%) in order to get rid of fungi and harmful insects that hibernated in the bark and in the surface of the trunk circle. For processing, you can use a urea solution (7%), it will not only get rid of pests and diseases, but also become a source of nitrogen for the plant. You need to spray the bushes before the sap flow begins, otherwise the buds that have begun to bloom will be burned. In the autumn, when the leaf fall ends, they carry out repeated preventive treatment of dwarf apple trees. To do this, use a solution of Nitrafen or Bordeaux mixture (1%).
The mode and abundance of watering directly depends on the age of the apple tree, as well as on the weather. The trees that have not begun to bear fruit during the season need three waterings, while 50 liters of water are poured under one plant at a time. The last time the apple tree needs to be watered is in the first days of August. The trees that have entered fruiting need more frequent watering, during the season there should be 3-5 of them, namely: before the tree blooms, during flowering, before the ovaries fall off (in June) and before the apples begin to ripen.
If the soil is sandy loam, then 40 liters of water should be poured under 1 tree at a time, but if it is loamy, then 60 liters of water will be needed. If there was a drought in the summer and there is also very little rain in the fall, the plant will need moisture-charging podzimny watering. At the same time, you must try to get the soil wet to the depth of the root system, for this, 1 bucket of water is taken per 1 square meter of the garden. If the groundwater on the site is located relatively close to the soil surface, then moisture-charging podzimny watering is not needed for such an apple tree.
Since the root system of an apple tree on a dwarf rootstock is not very large, and fruiting at the same time is distinguished by its abundance, it is necessary to systematically feed it 1 time in half a month. In the second and third years of growth, the plant will need top dressing with complex fertilizer (for 10 liters of water, 30–40 grams of the substance). At least 2 times during the season, it is recommended to feed the apple tree with organic matter, for this you can use a solution of chicken manure (1:20) or mullein (1:10), while 10 liters of nutrient mixture are taken for 1 bush. In the summertime, foliar complex dressings are made and mineral fertilizers are used for this. In this case, the foliage should be sprayed with a nutrient solution on both sides. Such a procedure is carried out in the early morning or late evening, while the day is chosen to be calm and dry. It is also recommended to feed the apple tree on the leaf with a solution of urea, but its concentration should be low, otherwise burns will remain on the surface of the foliage. The last time you can feed the plant on a leaf is no later than September. In autumn, the fertilizers used for top dressing should not contain nitrogen, since it stimulates the growth of young shoots, which leads to a delay in the preparation of the tree for wintering. In autumn, the plant needs most of all phosphorus and potassium. The approximate composition of the dressing per 1 square meter of the plot: 2 tbsp is poured into 1 bucket of water. l. double superphosphate and 1 tbsp. potassium.
Since the root system of such a plant is located close to the surface of the site, then in a cold winter with little snow, it can freeze out. In order to prevent this, the trunk circle must be covered with compost or humus, while the layer must be thick enough. From above it is still covered with spruce branches. After the snow has fallen, if you wish, you can remove the spruce branches, and instead of it, the trunk circle is thrown with a thick layer of snow, because even a very severe frost cannot harm the apple tree under it.
In order for the yield of a dwarf apple tree to be consistently high, it needs to have a properly formed crown. If we neglect the formative scraps, then every year the fruits will become less and less, and after 3 or 4 years on the tree, at best, several fruits of not very good quality will show off. Formative pruning occurs in March – April. At the same time, sanitary and anti-aging pruning is carried out. After the entire crop is harvested in the fall, the plant will need repeated sanitary pruning.
The rules for the formative pruning of dwarf apple trees are the same as for the formation of the crown of vigorous apple trees, but it is carried out in a shorter time. There are several types of crowns for dwarf apple trees: slender spindle, flat spindle, free palmette, dwarf pyramid. Moreover, the last type on this list is the most popular among gardeners. So, a tree is formed from a plant, the height of which does not exceed 250 cm, while the average length of the branches will be about 100 cm.
Before the sap flow begins in the spring, sanitary pruning of the tree should be done; for this, all injured, frost or disease damaged, as well as improperly growing branches are removed. At the same time, formative pruning is carried out. They begin to form a dwarf apple tree already in the first spring after planting a seedling. To do this, the plant should be shortened to 0.5 m, while the cut is made on the kidney opposite to the graft. As a result, at the end of the season, the plant should have 4 or 5 powerful shoots, while the topmost (future conductor) should grow almost vertically. In the next season, the conductor should be trimmed 20 centimeters from the base of the growth on the kidney opposite to the cut that was made last season. This allows you to maintain the maximum vertical direction of the conductor. The remaining branches (there should be at least 4) must be shortened to 20 centimeters from the base.
Lateral shoots that are not involved in the formation of the skeleton of the tree must be cut into 3 leaves, and shoots of the second order on the first leaf from their base.Such procedures begin to be carried out from the last days of July and end them only when the length of uncircumcised shoots reaches 20 centimeters. For the third season and all subsequent ones, the plant should be cut in the same order; for this, the conductor is shortened by 20 centimeters per kidney, which is located opposite to last year's cut, which will preserve its vertical position. After the apple tree reaches the required height, every year it will be necessary to cut off the entire growth of the conductor. After the length of the skeletal branches is equal to 0.45–0.5 m, their lateral growths will also need to be cut off. If necessary, you need to deal with the thinning of overgrown branches. In order for the fruiting branches to be directed horizontally, they should be shortened to a growth that is oriented downward. To keep the shape of the crown pyramidal, the growth of the upper branches must be controlled.
APPLE TREE. We form a dwarf crown.
In the process of collecting fruits, part of the branches is injured or breaks off in this regard, when the leaf fall ends, the plant will need sanitary pruning. During its implementation, it is necessary to cut off all dried, improperly growing, injured, competing and diseased stems and branches. All slices that are thicker than 0.7 cm need to be treated with a garden pitch. If it is colder than minus 5 degrees outside, then pruning should be postponed, since in such cold weather the wood is very fragile, and serious harm can be done to the tree during pruning.
Weak rootstocks are most often propagated by vegetative methods: horizontal and vertical layering, intercalary insertion, root, lignified and green cuttings, as well as budding. The main difficulty in growing an apple tree on a dwarf rootstock is that it is very difficult to get such a seedling, and it also has a relatively high cost.
Is it possible to grow a dwarf stock with your own hands? There are several ways to do this.
Two-year-old dwarf rootstock seedlings are well suited for this propagation method. It should be planted in open soil, while part of the stem is 10-15 centimeters buried in the ground. In spring, the part of the plant located above the ground should be shortened to 15–20 mm, while the remaining hemp should have 2 or 3 buds. After the length of the shoots grown from these buds is 12 to 15 centimeters, when watering is done or it rains, the stump will need to be covered with peat, sawdust or nutritious soil to a height of 60 to 100 mm. Before starting hilling, it is imperative to carefully spread the shoots. After their length reaches 20-25 centimeters, you need to huddle them again with a gentle and wide hill, while nitrogen-containing fertilizer is introduced into the soil. On vertical layers, the roots will begin to grow after 35–40 days. At this stage, it is very important to maintain high soil moisture (75 to 80 percent). You also need to regularly weed and loosen the soil. In autumn, the soil must be carefully removed and with the help of a pruner, separate the layers (shoots with formed roots), while leaving 10–20 mm of growth on the stump. The separated layers should be planted in open soil. The uterine bush must be covered with earth, since with proper care for 10 years it will produce from 5 to 10 layers every year, and varietal cuttings can be grafted on them.
You will need strong dwarf rootstock stems that are low growing. They should be laid in pre-prepared shallow (from 30 to 50 mm) grooves, after which they are fixed with metal pins and sprinkled with a layer of soil. In spring, all the ground must be carefully removed from the horizontal layer, and the vertical shoots that have grown from it will need hilling to a height of 12 to 15 centimeters, which later needs to be repeated, but already to a height of 20 to 25 centimeters. At the base of the layering, it is recommended to tighten it with a soft wire, which will have a positive effect on the formation of their roots. In autumn, the cuttings should be cut off from the parent bush, removed from the ground, divided into several parts and planted in open ground in a permanent place. Such layers are of higher quality compared to vertical ones.
Dwarf rootstocks have one big drawback, their root system is located very close to the soil surface, and therefore it can be severely damaged due to severe frosts in winter with little snow, which often leads to the death of the tree. But it is quite possible to get rid of this disadvantage. To do this, it is necessary to apply a combined method of creating a dwarf apple tree using an intercalary insert - this is an intermediate link between the stock of a vigorous apple tree and a varietal cuttings, which are a cuttings of a dwarf tree. As a result, a three-story structure is created: first there is a well-developed and powerful root system of a vigorous apple tree, then a dwarf apple stalk grafted onto it, and then a cultivar stalk grafted onto it. Trees with such inserts can be planted in open soil in different ways:
In order for propagation by green cuttings to be successful, you will need a greenhouse, in which you need to create fog. Harvesting is carried out in mid-June, while young shoots should be used to cut green cuttings with three leaf plates. The upper cut must be made above the third leaf plate, and the lower one - under the kidney. The lower leaf plate must be cut off, after which the cuttings must be tied, and their lower cuts must be dipped into a solution that promotes the formation of roots for 18-20 hours. After the cuttings are rinsed in clean running water, they should be planted in a greenhouse using the scheme 4x6 centimeters. It should be borne in mind that the soil mixture must be loose and consist of sand and peat. You will need a special installation that will help create a foggy environment in the greenhouse, since moisture should be present on the foliage all the time. In the summertime, cuttings that have given roots must be planted in open soil, where they will grow for 1 year. Then they are used as dwarf rootstocks for varietal cuttings.
Lignified cuttings are harvested in autumn during the extraction of cuttings from the soil. The length of the cuttings with the etiolated lower part should be at least 0.2–0.3 m. Before planting, the cuttings are stored in the basement, they are buried in moistened peat or sand and kept at a temperature of 2–5 degrees. At the beginning of the spring period, these cuttings are planted in an unheated greenhouse, while a distance of 10 centimeters should be kept between them, it should also be taken into account that only 2 or 3 buds should remain above the surface of the site. In order for the cuttings to root well, it is necessary to maintain a high humidity in the greenhouse (from 75 to 80 percent).
To obtain columnar rootstocks using this method, you need to ask your neighbors or buy a few pieces of root cuttings in the nursery, they should be 8–12 centimeters long and 0.6–1 centimeters across. For the winter they are stored in peat or sand and kept at a temperature of 2–5 degrees. 15–20 days before planting for rooting, cuttings are removed to a warmer place (from 15 to 20 degrees). In spring, cuttings should be planted in open soil, while in a row between them, a distance of 8-10 centimeters must be maintained. It is necessary to place the cuttings in the soil vertically, while making sure that the thickness of the soil layer above the upper cut is at least 20 mm. Several shoots should grow from the cuttings, which must be removed, leaving only the most branched. The main condition for successful reproduction in this way is a constantly slightly moist soil.
Budding is carried out in mid-July. You need to take a shield with an eye of a varietal cutting, a leaf petiole and a thin layer of wood, which is inserted into the cut of the bark of a dwarf rootstock, which has a T-shape and is located slightly above the knee. Then the vaccination site must be wrapped with eyepiece tape, you can take another sufficiently elastic material, while the peephole with a petiole should not be closed. After 15–20 days, the shield will have to completely grow together with the stock. In order for budding to be exactly successful, 2 eyes of the same variety are grafted at once, and they are placed on opposite sides of the stock. After the shield has exactly taken root, it will be necessary to remove the eyepiece tape, and with the onset of spring time it will be necessary to cut the rootstock onto the grafted bud, after which the base of the shoot, which grows from the grafted eye, is covered with earth. Next spring, it will be already possible to start forming the crown of a dwarf apple tree.
An apple tree on a dwarf rootstock can suffer from the same diseases as tall apple trees, or rather, such a plant can hit: witch's broom (proliferation), bitter fruit rot, milky shine, mosaic, mosaic ringing, powdery mildew, fly-eater, tinder fungus, common cancer, scab, dying off of branches, pome fruit rot, subcutaneous viral spotting, rubberiness, rust, flattened branches, vitreous fruit, black cancer and cytosporosis.
If the plant is affected by a fungal disease, then fungicidal preparations must be used for processing, for example: iron or copper sulfate, Bordeaux liquid, colloidal sulfur, Quadris, Skor, Horus, Fundazol, Ridomil, Topaz, etc. Mycoplasma and viral diseases are considered incurable, due to with this, the affected areas are cut out to healthy tissue, after which they are treated with copper sulfate. At best, the tree will be able to recover and continue to grow, and if not, then it should be removed from the soil and destroyed.
Preventive measures to protect the dwarf apple tree from disease:
Why apple trees dry up Black apple crayfish. Garden World site
A dwarf apple tree can be harmed by such harmful insects as: apple-plantain aphid, apple sawfly, glassworm, moth, moth, leafworm, honeydew, comma-shaped scabbard, fruit striped moth, bluehead scoop, currant leafworm, rowan moth , subcrustal and fruit moth, fruit moth, pear beetle, unpaired, ringed and oakleaf silkworms, miner moths, blood and red-gall aphids, red apple tick, goose, winter moth, green apple aphid, western unpaired bark beetle, sapweed and pear beetles , eastern moth, apple blossom beetle, upper-sided fruit moth, brown fruit mite, hawthorn and hawthorn moth.
Almost all such harmful insects, except for apple trees, can also infect other garden crops, for example: plum, mountain ash, sweet cherry, apricot, quince, pear, bird cherry, cherry, cherry plum. Moreover, from the affected plant, they can fall on healthy specimens if the fight against them was not started in a timely manner. Most importantly, it should be remembered that the best protection of an apple tree on a dwarf rootstock from various pests is timely preventive treatments.
Spring processing of the garden from pests and diseases / When and how to process trees in spring
All varieties on a dwarf rootstock are divided according to the ripening period into winter (late), autumn (mid-season) and summer (early). Such a division of varieties is also present in tall apple trees. It has already been said above that the main difference between dwarf and vigorous apple trees is that tall and medium-sized apple trees have a pivotal root system, and it goes deep into the soil, while low-growing trees grown on dwarf rootstocks have a surface root system. Precisely because dwarf apple trees have such a root system, it is very important for novice gardeners to know which varieties are best grown in regions with cool as well as cold climates.
In the Moscow region, it is recommended to grow the following varieties of dwarf apple trees:
In addition to these varieties, in the Moscow region, you can grow the Moscow necklace, Snowdrop, Carpet, Land, Northern Sinap, Antonovka, Legend, Moscow red, Nizkosloe, etc.
The varieties of dwarf apple trees that are recommended to be grown in the Urals are more frost-resistant than those grown in the Moscow region. It is recommended to grow the following varieties in this region:
Also in the Urals, you can cultivate such varieties as: Sun, Early sweet, Low, Carpet, Ural bulk, Krasa Sverdlovsk, Ksenia, Bashkir handsome, Shreifing, Yantar, etc.
In Siberia, it is possible to grow only those varieties of apple trees on dwarf rootstocks that have a very high resistance to frost, while they must withstand frosts below minus 40 degrees. The best varieties for Siberia:
Considering how unpretentious the variety is to care for, winter and drought resistant, resistant to pests and diseases, what taste it has, etc., the best include: Bratchud, Carpet, Low-growing, Snowdrop, Land, Early Sweet, Solnyshko, Sokolovskoe and Wonderful ...
Dwarf apple and pear trees are gaining more and more popularity among summer residents. These plants are compact, take up little space and are very easy to care for.
An additional advantage of dwarf apple trees is that they begin to bear fruit as early as the 3rd year after planting in open ground. Due to the short stem, due to less wood pulp, they need less nutrients and even those garden plots where groundwater is very close to the surface are suitable for their cultivation.
An additional advantage of these varieties is that their growing season is shorter than that of conventional trees. Consequently, a dwarf apple tree will better and faster prepare for the winter period, which determines their high frost resistance.
Planting dwarf apple trees.
Trees on dim rootstocks are best placed in sheltered, well-lit areas, but they can also grow in slightly shaded areas, in elevated areas or on slopes.
The best soils for dwarf apple trees - fairly loose, nutrient-rich, well-hydrated light and medium loams.
During the formation of fruits, mature trees take out a lot of nutrients from the soil. Therefore, in order to get good yields in the future in areas with less fertile soil, it is necessary to apply organic and mineral fertilizers directly to the planting pits when planting.
The depth of the roots of adults dwarf apple trees within 1 m, therefore, they can be planted in areas with groundwater occurrence at least 1.5 m from the soil surface.
Dwarf apple trees (depending on the type of scion) they are planted according to the scheme 2x3 m or 3x3 m.
A planting hole is dug about 70 x 60 cm in size. Most of the upper fertile soil layer removed from the planting pit is mixed with fertilizers (600 g of superphosphate, 300 g of potassium chloride (or 700 g of ash), as well as 1 - 2 buckets of humus (or peat), fresh manure is not used).
A stake is driven into the center of the pit, the finished mixture is poured into the pit with a mound, on top of which, with a layer of 3 - 5 cm, the top layer of soil is poured without fertilizers. A seedling is placed, the roots are gently straightened and covered with soil again without fertilizers. Planting is done in such a way that the root system of the seedling does not come into contact with the mixture of soil and fertilizers in order to avoid scalding the roots.
Dwarf apple trees - planting, pruning and care.
The distance from the grafting site to the soil surface should be at least 3 - 5 cm. If the grafting site turns out to be covered with soil, then the grafted variety can move to its own roots and dwarfism will be lost. But too shallow landing is not desirable dwarf apple tree , as this leads to drying of the roots and, as a result, poor development or even death of the plant.
The soil around the trunk is compacted with a foot, the tree is tied to a stake, watered abundantly, and the trunk circle is mulched.
Columnar apple trees are best planted in early spring before the buds swell. However, autumn plantings in late September - early October are also allowed. Some gardeners who bought planting material in containers have a successful experience of planting young apple trees even in summer.
When laying an apple orchard, it is better to choose low-lying places protected from the wind, in which snow lingers for a long time. It protects young trees from cold weather. Moreover, the groundwater level in such a site should not exceed 2 m.
For planting in the ground, annual plants of frost-resistant varieties are most suitable. They take root faster and grow. Seedlings are planted according to the scheme 50 × 100 cm. Add 4 kg of rotted manure or compost, 50 g each of superphosphate, potassium chloride and dolomite flour to the planting pit. The roots of the tree are carefully straightened and, placed on the bottom of the planting recess, are watered abundantly. If necessary, secure the young tree in an upright position with a peg. When the water is completely absorbed, the roots are covered with soil so that the grafting site is located above ground level, and a roller is made to prevent the spread of water. Then the tree is watered again, and the soil around it is mulched. As an alternative to mulching, green manures can be sown within the radius of the trunk circle, which will have to be mowed regularly in the future.
Dwarf apple trees, as the name implies, are compact in size and produce juicy, tasty fruits. Apples collected from dwarf trees are ideal for processing, the flowering time of such crops is significant, so the garden looks very beautiful.
Dwarf apple trees are obtained by grafting the required tree varieties onto clonal rootstocks. Reproduction by stock is carried out vegetatively, not by seed - that is, by cuttings and layering. All cuttings are part of the mother plant and have 100% properties. If you vaccinate several apple trees on one stock, plant them in one garden under equal conditions, all trees will begin to bear fruit at the same time (usually this is the third year after planting). The height will usually also be the same (2 m by ten years).
Wedge rootstocks are medium-sized, vigorous, superkalikovyh, but the most popular are dwarf ones. In natural dwarfs, the branches are directed horizontally, close to the soil. The buds, which are located on the side and at the top, receive maximum nutrition, are well lit, and strong shoots are obtained from them. Germination of such buds is the most active. Under local conditions, the main part of flower buds is laid in early August, when the growth of shoots in length stops. The yield per branch depends on the climatic conditions of a particular region. The same can be said for the length of the shoots.
Dwarf fruit trees vary in ripening time and are:
Rootstocks of crops are heterogeneous - they are seed, clonal, grafted. Depending on the taste, the varieties are divided into dessert, table, universal, can be sour, sweet and have additional notes, according to the degree of resistance to cold - into heat-loving and frost-resistant.
Consider the popular summer tree species:
Gardeners also give high marks to autumn varieties. Basic:
And the last on our list are winter varieties of dwarf apple trees:
The easiest way to grow dwarf apple trees from seedlings, which can be bought ready-made in a specialty store or market. The main thing is not to confuse dwarfs with other varieties. Distinctive features of planting material for growing mini-trees:
Read how to plant an apple tree here.
For the tree to grow well, properly transport its seedling to the planting site.
The planting material is transported in a damp cloth, the twigs are fixed to the trunk with twine. Try to plant the variety as quickly as possible. This article will tell you how to plant an apple tree correctly.
In order for dwarf apple varieties to grow well and bear fruit, they must be planted in prepared soil. This is done in the spring, immediately after the end of the melting snow. Do not forget to fertilize the soil - trees grow better in rich soils. Before planting, the seedlings are cut to form a lower crown stem. A year later, the increments are cut off. If the procedures are followed correctly, the apple tree will remain young for a long time and give large fruits.
The groundwater level should be from 1.5 from the surface. The optimal distance between trees in the garden is 3 * 3 or 2 * 3 m. The planting hole should have a depth of 50 cm and a diameter of 60 to 79 cm. The top layer of soil removed by digging a hole is deposited separately from the bulk. A bucket of humus is added to the finished pit, after which everything is thoroughly mixed with the upper soil layer.
You will need to spill the soil with a bucket of water and mix everything thoroughly again. The grafting area is located 2-3 cm from the soil level. Compact the soil in a near-stem circle in diameter, leaving a roller up to 10 cm. You can read more about growing apple trees and caring for them here.
It is recommended to finish feeding in August, if you live in a very cold region, then at the end of July.
In the spring, the insulation, which was done for the winter, is removed from the apple trees, and sanitary pruning is performed.All branches damaged by frost are cut off, the crown is carefully examined for pests. In the spring, fertilizing is mandatory, garbage is removed and burned, soil is dug up to 5-7 cm. In clear weather, whitewashing of the trunks should also be carried out. Before the massive awakening of insects, make water obstacles - wrap the trunks with belts, set traps.
In the summer, carefully monitor the soil around the apple trees, the condition of the trees. Watering should be regular and abundant, apply foliar dressing (mainly nitrogenous).
In autumn, garbage is removed around the trees, which is recommended to be burned - this is an effective preventive measure against rot and fungus. Apply mineral fertilizers, cut off excess and insect-damaged branches, loosen the soil around the trees.
Additionally, the trunks will need to be processed from rodents and insulated with roofing material, do not forget to place the baits from the mice. The yield of dwarf apple trees is about the same as that of ordinary ones, but they begin to bear fruit later - in the third year after vaccination.
The collection of fruits is carried out once a season. Harvesting is quite simple due to the low height of the trees; there is no need to use complex devices to remove excess branches. The crown is compact, the trees themselves are small.
You can look for semi-dwarf varieties, which are more viable than ordinary dwarf varieties. A deep root system, even with a small tree size, gives impressive yields. The lifespan of dwarf apple trees is half that of the growth and flowering period of their tall counterparts. This has its advantages - so you can replace old varieties with more modern ones every 20 years.
Insulate the roots thoroughly for the winter. Depletion of trees is the main reason for their irregular fruiting, so keep an eye on the quality of the soil used to grow your plantings. Too large yields are not always good, since they can be of poor quality, and relatively thin and weak branches often break under the load of heavy fruits. To prevent branches from breaking, use supports.
The rate of fruit ripening is directly dependent on the climatic conditions of a particular region. If you believe the reviews of gardeners, then in the Moscow region hybrids grow best - these are winter, summer and autumn varieties with good indicators of apple preservation and high frost resistance. The most attractive are apple trees 3-3.5 m in height - early-growing and fruitful.
These varieties are perfectly combined with clonal rootstocks. The first harvests on semi-dwarf rootstocks are harvested in 3-4 years after planting, and marketable ones - only for 4-5 years of cultivation. It is believed that trees grown on dwarf rootstocks are less adapted to life.
Video about columnar dwarf apple trees.