Apricot - how to grow, plant and care for the harvest to delight you


In the wild, apricots can be found not only in the southern regions, but also in Eastern Siberia and Manchuria. These plants became the ancestors of many winter-hardy varieties, which made it possible to grow apricots in colder climates.

How apricot grows

In good conditions, apricot grows up to 8 meters in height, but more often these deciduous trees are much shorter, only 4-5 meters. The smooth brown bark of young trees cracks over time. Young twigs are red-brown in color. Fine-toothed petiole leaves have a rounded shape elongated to the top. White or pale pink flowers 2-3 cm in diameter on short pedicels appear in April or May, when the leaves have not yet blossomed. Fruits are round, juicy with a well-defined longitudinal groove. They are of different shades of orange with one large bone inside. Apricots ripen from late June to early September, depending on the variety, soil, planting site and climatic conditions.

The beginning of fruiting

Apricot begins to bear fruit from 3–6 years of age (depending on the variety), if grown from a stone. Fruiting continues for 30–40 years.

Growing and care

A loamy soil with neutral acidity with deep groundwater is suitable for growing apricots. Heavy loams and clay soils contribute to stagnation of moisture, which leads to decay of roots and death of seedlings.

Where to plant

The place for the tree should be sunny, well protected from the northern gusty winds, or the apricot should be protected with an additional fence. This could be a hedge or a few deciduous trees that won't shade the seedling. Planting is best done in spring, the seedling will have time to root well. In the fall, the weather can change suddenly and the tree does not have enough time to develop its root system.

Although we will plant the apricot in the spring, preparation should begin in the fall. Dig a hole 80 cm deep and wide. Drive a peg long enough to the bottom in the center so that it protrudes 60-80 centimeters above the ground level. If the soil is rather heavy to cause stagnation of water, then crushed stone is poured onto the bottom of the pit with a layer of 15–20 cm. Peat or humus must be added to the soil removed from the pit (for 2 volumes of soil - 1 volume of peat), 0.5 kilograms of superphosphate and 2 kg of ash. Mix well and return this mixture to the pit.

In the spring, dig a hole in the settled ground according to the size of the seedling roots. Check for dried and rotten roots. They need to be removed. We dip the prepared roots into a chatter box made of clay and mullein. The seedling must be lowered into the ground so that the root collar is 5–6 cm above ground level. We cover the roots with earth, tamp and water with two or three buckets of water. When water is absorbed, the earth will sink, and the root collar will be at ground level. Now we tie the tree to the peg driven in from the fall.

Care

Apricot care comes down to traditional weeding of near-stem areas, top dressing, watering and pruning. The peculiarity of caring for this tree is the regular harvesting of the leaves around it in the fall. Wet leaves in the near-stem circle can cause the bark to undergo heating, which will lead to the death of the tree.

Top dressing

In the spring, you need to feed the tree with nitrogen fertilizers. This is done before and after flowering, fertilizing the soil. Better to feed the trees with liquid fertilizer. Dig a groove 15 centimeters deep along the perimeter of the crown by half a shovel and pour a solution of a tablespoon of nitrogen fertilizer into a bucket (10 liters) of water.

Such feeding is quite time consuming. It can be replaced by spraying the apricot with urea (carbamide) with copper sulfate. Dissolve 700 grams of carbamide and 50 grams of copper sulfate in a bucket of water. This solution has three functions: it feeds the tree with nitrogen, protects it from pests and delays flowering for two to three weeks, which is very important for the apricot, as it allows it to avoid late frosts. The trunk circle also needs to be sprayed with this solution.

The second time with nitrogen fertilizer is fed in June after the excess ovary has fallen off.

Apricot branch with fruit ovary

In the summer, foliar feeding is carried out. Apricot is sprayed with solutions containing nitrogen and trace elements. After harvest, processing is carried out with a 3% carbamide solution. In the fall, organic fertilizers are applied every year: manure, compost or peat. But there is another opinion of gardeners. Such organic fertilizers should be applied every 3-5 years.

An excess of nutrients in the soil leads to a decrease in fruiting. The tree intensively grows its crown to the detriment of the fruit.

Pruning

Cut apricots from the first year of life.

Cropping can be:

  • Formative;
  • Regulatory;
  • Anti-aging;
  • Recovery;
  • Sanitary.

Forming and regulating pruning is done at the same time. Both aim to ensure that new fruit-bearing branches appear, and the tree is not overloaded with fruit. Regulatory pruning is carried out taking into account the requirements for crown formation.

Forming and regulating pruning is aimed at ensuring that new fruit-bearing branches appear, and the tree is not overloaded with fruits

The crown can be formed by two methods: sparse-tiered and flattening of the crown.

Flattening of the crown - the tree is left without a conductor, that is, the trunk is cut out immediately above the skeletal branches and not a single branch is allowed to replace it. The branches only grow to the sides.

Sparse-tiered - 2–3 branches of the first order grow with a distance up the trunk of 30–35 cm between them. Branches located 1 m from the ground are cut in half. Everything above the skeletal branches is cut without hemp. The trunk is shortened, leaving 20-25 cm above the main branches. In the summer, cut out all branches growing at an acute angle to the main one. Next year, the second row of branches is formed after 35–40 cm from the first one. Annual branches 60 cm long are shortened by half, small ones do not touch at all. The trunk (in the literature - the main conductor) is cut over the last branch of the second row. In the future, branches are cut out that grow inside the crown and thicken it.

Rejuvenating pruning is carried out in the spring or in the first decade of August, when new shoots cannot form on the tree. The slices will have time to overgrow before the end of the growing season.

Anti-aging pruning - video

Regenerative pruning is performed on mechanically damaged or frozen trees. Sanitary pruning - removing dead and diseased branches.

Graft

To improve the quality of fruits and winter hardiness of apricots, vaccinations are used. They start by growing a seedling from a zoned apricot seed. In the second year, it will already be possible to graft a twig from a fruiting tree and get a harvest in 2-3 years. Such trees are much more resistant to adverse weather conditions.

Apricot can be grafted not only on apricot, but also on other stone fruits: plums, cherries, cherry plums, peaches and blackthorns. It is very difficult for novice gardeners to get a good result from this operation. For this you need:

  • good properly sharpened tools;
  • the skill of fast and accurate movements;
  • cuttings prepared in advance;
  • knowledge of the most effective way of vaccination to achieve the goal;
  • the choice of the optimal time for the vaccination.

For apricot, spring grafting is preferable, when the active movement of juices begins and the danger of night frosts has passed. There are not so many vaccination methods:

  • usual copulation;

Copulation is used if you want to get a varietal apricot. A varietal cutting is grafted onto a seedling grown from a seed.

Grafting of a varietal apricot cut on a seedling grown from a seed, by capulation

Actions to be taken while inoculating by capulation method:

  1. the seedling, which will be inoculated, is cut at an angle of 45 °;
  2. the cutting is cut at the same angle;
  3. apply the cutting to the seedling;
  4. achieve complete coincidence of the cuts;
  5. fix the stalk on the seedling with a plaster, electrical tape or cotton cloth.

The main condition for a successful grafting is that the diameters of the rootstock and scion must match up to 1 mm.

Aligning rootstock and scion sections is the most important part of copulation grafting.

The stock is a tree onto which they are grafted.

Graft is a graft that is grafted.

  • improved copulation

For improved copulation, a double cut is made on the rootstock and scion.

  • in the side cut;

When grafting into a side cut, the scion is cut from both sides, and a cut is made on the stock, into which the cutting is inserted

  • into cleavage;

Grafting into the split - the stock is split in the middle, long cuts are made on the right on both sides, and the cutting is inserted into the split

  • for the bark.

Apricot grafting - the bark is cut into the rootstock and a cutting is inserted there, on which the bark is cut off on both sides

All this is gained only by practice.

Diseases and pests

To protect trees from diseases and pests, before the buds swell, they must be sprayed with a solution of 700 g of carbamide, 50 g of copper sulfate per 10 liters of water. This solution will kill pests that have overwintered in the bark and the spores of most fungi. If this is not done, then you will have to use chemicals throughout the season.

Apricot can hurt:

  • moniliosis (gray rot);
  • Valsa mushroom;
  • bacterial spotting;
  • verticillosis;
  • cytosporosis (fungus living under the bark);
  • gum flow;
  • clotterosporia (perforated spot);
  • bacterial cancer;
  • tape mosaic.

You can determine what your tree is sick with by the appearance of the plant.

Moniliosis: the bark is covered with light gray pads, the leaves and branches turn dark brown and fall off, the fruits, not ripe, dry up, burst or rot.

With moniliosis, diseased branches dry up with leaves and fruits.

In diseased trees, all damaged branches with leaves and fruits are removed. The trunk and skeletal branches are treated with Bordeaux fluid. Places of cuts are covered with garden pitch.

Vals mushroom: amber ulcers develop on the bark.

Ulcers appear on the tree when the Valsa fungus is infected

To cure a tree, it is sprayed with a fungicide according to the instructions for the preparation.

Bacterial Spot: At first, dark specks of three millimeters in diameter can be seen on the leaves. Later, these areas become transparent with a black border. The transparent part is cracked and the border turns yellow.

Bacterial spot disease manifests itself on the leaves with dark spots.

For treatment, the tree is sprayed with copper sulfate according to the instructions for the preparation.

Verticilliasis: the leaves on the lower branches turn yellow, while the upper ones remain green.

The yellowing branches of the lower branches of the apricot are a sign of a tree disease with verticillosis

Treatment - spray with a fungicide according to the instructions for the preparation.

Cytosporosis: leaves at the top of the crown wither, brown spots appear on the bark, the disease spreads from top to bottom, affecting the branches and trunk, the tree dies.

Brown spots on the bark of apricot are a sign of a tree disease with cytosporosis

Fighting the disease - the affected branches must be cut off. In the spring, before the buds swell, the trees are sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux mixture: 300 g of copper sulfate and 300 g of quicklime per 10 liters of water.

Gum flow: an amber or brown sticky liquid can appear on any part of the tree, up to the fruit. After some time, this liquid solidifies and hardens.

Amber resin on the trunk or branches of an apricot - the tree got sick with gum flow

All damage should be carefully cleaned with a sharp garden knife. At the same time, the gum itself and a little surrounding healthy tissue are removed, capturing about 4–5 mm. All cleaned areas should be covered with garden varnish.

Clasterosporium: purple specks appear on the leaves, which after some time fall out, forming holes.

Clasterosporium disease of apricot is manifested by holes in seemingly healthy leaves.

As soon as the affected shoots are found, they are sawed off and burned. The cut sites are covered with garden varnish; these procedures must be carried out before leaf fall.

Bacterial cancer: the bark on the branches or trunk begins to crack, nodules and thickenings appear.

Apricot bacterial cancer most often occurs due to frost cracks

The main procedure in the fight against bacterial cancer is to prune the affected branches, and then putty the cut with garden varnish with the addition of a fungicide.

Ribbon mosaic: yellow stripes along the veins are visible on the blossoming leaves. Gradually, these stripes grow, the leaf dies off. The trunks are treated with copper sulfate according to the instructions.

The tape mosaic disease manifests itself on the leaves with brown spots and redness.

There are only three main pests of apricot trees: moth, leafworm and aphid.

In the moth, caterpillars that appear in August cause harm to the fruit. Then caterpillars pupate and hibernate in fallen leaves. Next year, butterflies will appear and everything will be repeated.

Outside the fruit, you can see only a small speck in the place where the caterpillar entered it, but inside you can see the caterpillar itself and the result of its activity

Therefore, the most effective protection against this pest will be cleaning and destruction of fallen leaves.

In the leafworm, caterpillars appear in the spring and begin to eat buds and leaves. They hibernate in fallen leaves and bark. In July, butterflies appear, lay eggs on leaves and shoots. The caterpillars that have emerged from them immediately leave for wintering until next spring.

A leafworm for wintering makes itself a house of rolled leaves

If a leaf roll is noticed in the fall, then in the spring they are treated with an insecticide at a temperature of at least 10 ° C.

Aphids are small insects that live on the lower part of leaves and feed on their sap. The leaves on which aphids have settled are deformed, faded and wither. The damaged plant lags behind in growth and fruiting.

The aphid that settled on young shoots and the underside of the fox sucks their juices

When aphids appear on the leaves, they are treated with some kind of bioinsecticide: Aktofit, Aktofir, Bitoxibacillin, Boverin. They try to process the lower part of the leaves. During fruiting, it is not recommended to treat with chemicals. Their toxic substances are absorbed into the fruit and can harm a person.

How apricots reproduce

Apricot is propagated in several ways:

  • green cuttings;
  • woody cuttings;
  • inoculations on a pre-prepared stock;
  • air layering;
  • root shoots;
  • growing a seedling from a stone.

Propagation by green cuttings

A green stalk is the portion of a leafy branch cut from a healthy tree. It is better to take cuttings from young plants and not from the top, but from the lateral shoots of this year from well-lit areas of the crown. Spinning (growing vertically upward) shoots take root worse due to the lack of carbohydrates in them, which are necessary for root formation.

Diagram of actions to be taken with green cuttings

Green cuttings:

  • cut branches with a diameter of no more than 8 mm;
  • cuttings with 3-4 leaves are cut from it;
  • shorten the leaves in half or two-thirds;
  • planted in a greenhouse.

It is advisable to cut off the shoots in the early morning so that the tissues of the branches are maximally saturated with moisture. It is good to immediately start planting cuttings, but if they need to be transported, then the shoots must be put into the water without delay so that the leaves do not touch its surface.

Cuttings can be stored for no more than two days.

Cuttings are cut with a length of 8-12 cm (3-4 leaves) with a very sharp knife or razor blade, so as not to squeeze the tissue of the twigs. The lower cut is made oblique below the kidney, and the upper cut is made straight just above the kidney. To reduce evaporation of moisture, the leaves are cut in half, or even one third is left.

Green cuttings can be rooted throughout the summer (from late May to mid-August).

Now there are several drugs that stimulate the formation of roots: Heteroauxin (indoleacetic acid (IAA)), Kornevin (indolylbutyric acid (IMA)), Zircon (a mixture of hydroxycinnamic acids). These drugs are best used in the form of solutions:

  • Heteroauxin - from 50 to 200 mg / l of water,
  • Kornevin - 1 g / l of water,
  • Zircon - 1 ml / l of water.

The cuttings are soaked in the solution so that the leaves do not come into contact with it. The container with cuttings must be removed to a dark, but not cold place. The temperature must be at least 18 ° C. Withstand sixteen to twenty hours. Longer soaking can lead to the opposite result - roots will not form.

For rooting cuttings, you can prepare a special bed or a small container. The place for the beds is chosen in partial shade. They dig a groove 20 centimeters deep, fill it two-thirds with compost, and fill the remaining 5-6 centimeters with sand. The cuttings are simply stuck into the sand to a depth of 1–2 cm. The sand is moistened and covered with plastic wrap so that it does not touch the plants. For this, arcs or props are installed. On one side, the film should open freely so that the cuttings can be sprayed with water every 3-4 days. When new ones appear in the axils of the leaves, the mini-greenhouse will need to be regularly ventilated. First, it is opened for 1–2 hours, gradually the airing time is increased, and the spraying time is reduced. 3-4 weeks before transplanting rooted cuttings, the film is removed completely.

If the cuttings are not dug out for the winter, then they are covered with dry oak leaves, spruce branches or peat. If the cuttings were rooted in some kind of container, then they can be lowered into the cellar without digging. Most often, it is recommended to plant cuttings for growing in the spring, for 2-3 years, and then replant them to a permanent place. But you can immediately plant it in a permanent place so as not to injure the roots.

Rooting green cuttings

Propagation of apricot by lignified cuttings

Wood cuttings can be harvested during the entire dormant period of the tree - from autumn after leaf fall until spring, when the buds have not yet begun to swell. Cuttings harvested during leaf fall or immediately after it take root better. The length of the planting material is 25-30 cm, and the thickness is 6-8 millimeters. The upper cut is made directly above the kidney, and the lower oblique, regardless of where the kidney is.

Cuttings cut in the fall can be immediately planted in the ground, but they can all die due to weather conditions. Therefore, most often the cuttings are stored until spring or begin rooting at home.

There are several ways to store woody cuttings:

  • just wrap tightly in a plastic bag and place on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator;
  • stick them in wet sand and lower them into a frost-free basement;
  • dig into a trench 80 cm deep, lined with non-woven material (lutrasil or something similar), cover it with cardboard or foam and cover it with earth.

It is important that the temperature at the storage location does not fall below 0, but also does not rise above + 4 ° C.

You can harvest woody cuttings from autumn to early spring, until the buds wake up

Harvesting woody cuttings:

  • cut off a branch;
  • divide it into segments with six buds;
  • tie into bundles and attach a tag;
  • stored in wet sand in a cellar.

In the spring, they prepare beds or boxes for rooting cuttings. The soil must be permeable to moisture and air. Peat and sand in equal parts meet this condition optimally. The layer of this potting mix on the bed or in the box should be such that the cuttings, planted at an angle of 45 degrees, are almost completely immersed. Two buds should remain above the surface, and the third is very close to the surface. The scheme for planting cuttings is in a box 10 by 10 cm, on a garden bed - 10 cm between cuttings and from 10 to 40 cm between rows.

Wood cuttings are rooted in spring in a prepared bed or container

Rooting a woody cuttings:

  • the stalk is immersed in the ground up to the second bud;
  • a rooted cuttings are slightly cut off shoots and roots;
  • planted in a permanent place.

One of the most important conditions when woody cuttings are well rooted - shoots on it should not develop before the roots.

For this, the lower part of the cutting is treated with drugs that stimulate the growth of the root system. And one more condition is strictly observed - the soil must be warmer than the air. To do this, the bed is covered with plastic wrap, having previously made holes in it for each cutting. At home, a box with cuttings is installed in a cool room, and a weak incandescent lamp is placed under it. With such heating, the temperature of the soil covered with the film should not exceed 18–20 ° C, and it should be constantly moist, but not wet.

Propagation of apricot by air layers

One of the methods of vegetative propagation of apricot is air layering.

In the spring, they choose a branch with an increase of this year. The border between the growth of this year and the past is well traced. It is necessary to retreat from this border closer to the tree, that is, according to last year's growth of 10 centimeters and make two circular cuts up to one and a half millimeters deep at a distance equal to one and a half of the diameter of the branch. Remove the bark between the incisions. Make 4 cuts along the branch above the place where the bark was removed. We treat all injuries with a preparation that stimulates root formation.

We put on a plastic bag with a cut bottom. With electrical tape, twine or wire we fix the bag below the place where the bark was removed. Pour wet soil or sphagnum into the bag, pre-soaked for a day. The soil can be completely different: purchased, a mixture of humus with sand, rotted sawdust with humus, and even just earth from your garden. A layer of soil 1.5–2 cm thick should cover the branch slightly above the longitudinal cuts. Press the soil against the branch and fix the top edge of the bag.

Root the stalk without separating it from the branch

Aerial rooting:

  • cut off the bark;
  • put on a plastic bag with a cut bottom;
  • fix at the bottom;
  • pour wet soil or sphagnum;
  • fix on top.

Direct rays of the sun will cause a greenhouse effect. The soil in the bag will overheat and the branch will die. To prevent this from happening, you can wrap a bag with earth on top with a white cloth or newspaper in three layers.

In order for the layering to grow vertically, it is tied to an adjacent branch or some kind of support. Care must be taken to ensure that the soil on the branch does not dry out. If the summer is hot, you will have to moisturize it several times.

When the roots become visible in the bag, the seedling is separated from the branch and the bag is removed. A twig with roots can be immediately planted in a permanent place, but it does not have a central root, and those that do exist are very fragile. It is better to plant such a seedling in a pot and after the leaves fall off, put it in a cellar or a cool room, where the temperature will not rise above 5–7 ° C, but it will not freeze.

In the spring, the seedling is planted in a permanent place.

Rooting of air layers - video

Propagation of apricot root shoots

Apricot is very rarely propagated by root shoots. Shoots can only be taken from trees grown from a bone, and it appears if the roots are damaged by rodents, frost, or the aboveground part of the apricot has died.

But if a growth has already appeared, then you need to carefully dig out the earth around it, get to the root from which it went, cut off the shoot along with part of the roots and immediately plant it in a permanent place. This is best done in early spring before bud break. Over the summer, the tree will take root well and get stronger. The place of the cut on the root must be treated with a garden pitch to avoid decay.

The root shoots are separated from the main root with a part of the fibrous roots

Propagation of apricot by bone

Apricot pits are sown in the fall, after soaking them in water for a day. In a groove 6 centimeters deep, bones are laid out at a distance of 10 cm from each other, covered with earth, and sprinkled with humus and grass on top. Seedlings will appear in the spring. They need to be protected from birds and rodents. This can be done with simple plastic bottles with a cut-off bottom. Over the summer, the seedlings will grow up and in the fall they can be transplanted to a permanent place. Such trees begin to bear fruit in the fifth year. But trees grown from a stone practically do not get sick and are better adapted to local climatic conditions.

Sowing apricot seeds in autumn - video

Watering the apricot

Apricot is one of the most drought tolerant garden trees. But if it lacks moisture, the apricot grows slowly, ages quickly, gives few fruits, and they are tasteless. Trees are watered in a near-trunk circle, formed during planting and increasing every year to the size of the crown, or in a groove dug at about the level of half of the crown projection.

The soil under the apricot needs to be soaked deeply, therefore, during one watering, water is poured several times into the trunk circle

A good harvest can be obtained only when the soil is moistened to a depth of 40–60 cm during the entire growing season, that is, from spring to autumn. The first watering is carried out when the ovaries appear, so that they do not fall off. The second watering is when the fruits are ripe. Water is most needed for the tree in late June - early July, when the bones harden. At the same time, flower buds are laid. In the future, two more waterings are made in August and September. It is clear that such rare watering should be abundant.

In June, the apricot requires more frequent and abundant watering.

But it all depends on the soil on which the garden grows. On sandy and sandy loam soils, watering is necessary not four times a year, but much more often. On loams - depending on the weather.

Watering the apricot during flowering

Most gardeners, including professionals, argue that it is impossible to water fruit trees and apricots, in particular, during flowering. If in spring there is little moisture in the soil, then the first time the trees are watered before the beginning of flowering, and the second time 15–20 days after its end.

Blooming apricot looks like a cloud caught in the branches of a tree

How to save an apricot from spring frost

Apricot blooms very early, and recurrent frosts often leave everyone without a crop.

There are only a few methods to make the tree bloom late:

  • In early June, the growth of this year is pinched. The tree will begin to grow side branches and lay new flower buds on them. They will bloom a week late, that is, the tree will have a second wave of flowering, and the harvest will still be there.
  • In winter, snow is tamped under the apricot with a layer of 30 cm. They sprinkle it with sawdust and again throw snow on it. The snow will melt much later under the sawdust. The roots will be cold longer, and the tree will emerge late from dormancy. Therefore, it will bloom later.
  • In early spring, before bud break, trees are sprayed with preparations containing auxin. This will delay flowering by ten days.
  • Or sprayed with a urea solution. Flowering will be delayed by one to two weeks.
  • Trees are treated until the buds swell with a three percent solution of Bordeaux liquid. In addition to protecting against frost, this treatment will also protect trees from diseases.
  • Before flowering with swollen buds, spray with a concentrated solution of sodium chloride 600-700 g per 10 liters of water. This can delay flowering by 7-14 days.

Features of growing apricots in different regions

In Central Russia, apricot trees often freeze slightly due to poorly ripened shoots. To avoid this, starting in August, trees are watered with an ash solution: a liter can of ash for 10 liters of water, leave for 3 days. This contributes to the cessation of the growth of shoots and their rapid ripening. Usually 5-10 buckets of ash solution help apricots to keep within the short summer and complete preparation for cold weather by the time of leaf fall.

In the Moscow region and the Smolensk region, it is advisable to plant apricots on a mound with a diameter of 2 meters and a height of up to 60 cm, even in places where there is no problem of groundwater. Since the vulnerable spot of the culture during the thaw is the bark near the root collar. With a high planting, the snow near the trunk will melt faster, and the melt water will drain down the hill.

In the Leningrad region, apricot seedlings do not take root, but you can grow trees from seeds zoned in the Far East and Khakassia of the following varieties: Amur, Seraphim, Khabarovsk, Akademik, BAM, Gift to BAM, Amur early Sayanskiy, Gorny Abakan, Sibiryak Baikalova, Vostochno-Sibirsky ...

According to the gardeners of the Leningrad region, the main cause of death of apricot trees is damage to the root collar in spring. Therefore, in this region, such a high landing is appropriate, which is used in the Moscow region.

In Belarus, agrotechnical methods are no different from those used in central Russia. Gardeners - the practitioners of this country determined that apricots of Russian and local selection take root well in them. Recommended varieties of apricot local selection Znakhodka and Spadchyn, and Russian - Alyosha and Minusinsky amber.

In Siberia, including the Omsk region, and in the Urals, including the Chelyabinsk region, grafted apricots grow well. Cuttings of trees of the Khabarovsk, Khakass and Chelyabinsk selection are grafted onto a seedling of a Manchurian apricot. On very wet soils, the apricot dies. A place for its cultivation is selected sunny, protected from the wind, and where the groundwater level is not higher than 2.5 meters.

The agrotechnology of growing apricots is slightly different from caring for other stone fruits. It can be grown even in regions where the climatic conditions for its growth are initially not suitable for these trees. You just need to take into account the peculiarities of growing apricots in a particular area, strictly adhere to all the rules for working with a plant in this region, and make efforts. And the result will not be slow to show itself.

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How to grow a fruitful apricot tree from a stone?

Apricots can be grown directly from the seed. This simple procedure is available to every gardener, for this it is important to master a few rules. In order for the tree to take root well, it is important to take such planting material that would correspond to the region in which the plant will grow. For areas with a harsh climate, Siberian and Far Eastern varieties of apricots are suitable.

In order for the plants to pollinate and give a rich harvest, you will need to plant not one, but at least two or three apricot trees. Thus, when the question arises whether it is possible to grow an apricot from a stone, the answer will be yes.

It is not difficult to grow a fruiting apricot from a stone. This planting method has a number of advantages:

  • cost-effectiveness, the procedure does not require additional costs and makes it possible to plant as many seeds as you like
  • the likelihood of getting a good result is very high
  • an apricot that was grown from a stone will take root better on the site and will be well adapted to the climate of the region where it will grow.

In addition to the advantages, it is necessary to pay attention to the possible inconveniences and disadvantages of this method of landing. Pitted apricots can suffer from cracks in the forks during winter. To fix the problem, you can graft the stalk onto a plum or cherry. And one more important fact: there is no guarantee that the apricot grown from the stone will have the same qualities as the original material.It is impossible to determine in advance what the fruits of apricot grown from the stone will be. Therefore, it makes sense to graft a variety on the plant.

Not every material is suitable for growing apricot from stone. The choice of seeds must be approached quite responsibly, because the quality of the future harvest will depend on it. There is a popular proven way of choosing a seed for planting. Overripe fruits are suitable for this. One of the fruits is cut and a bone is taken out, which will need to be chopped and tasted.

If the seed tastes bitter, then such seeds are not good. Better to give preference to another variety. You should also pay attention to how the bone is separated from the pulp. As a rule, in those fruits, the pulp of which departs well from the seeds, the nucleoli are more suitable for planting.

Such bones can be safely germinated. Pitted apricots can be grown not only for harvest. It can be used as an ornamental plant to decorate the interior of a room or office. Under favorable conditions, indoor apricot can reach two meters in height.


How to groom in spring

Caring for apricots in spring is the key to a rich and sweet harvest in autumn. Due to the early vegetation of the tree, it begins in late March, early April.

The mandatory list of spring works includes:

  • Pruning an apricot tree.
  • Whitewash.
  • First feeding.
  • First watering.

Pruning apricot - the main stage of spring care. It is carried out before the juice begins to move along the shoots. The exception is years with frosty winters (the temperature dropped below -30 ° C), the branches are cut after the beginning of the growing season. This makes it easier to assess how badly the tree has suffered from the cold. There are a lot of frostbitten branches - only they are cut off, and the seasonal formation of the crown is postponed until autumn or next spring.

If winter has not done much damage to the apricot, pruning is carried out according to the standard scheme. In young trees, they form a crown, in old trees, branches rejuvenate.

General rules for spring pruning of apricot:

  • The branches are cut "under the bud". The instrument is held so that the upper part of the cut is above the kidney, and the lower one at its base. The cut is treated with garden varnish with the addition of disinfectants. This will prevent the development of pathogenic microflora.
  • No more than 1/3 of the skeletal branches are removed from the crown, since the procedure weakens the tree.
  • Before flowering, all deformed, frostbitten or dried branches are cut off.

The crown can be formed by two methods: flattening, sparse-tiered. In the first case, the trunk of the apricot is cut over the skeletal branches. Subsequently, none of the branches are allowed to be replaced. All branches grow to the sides.

When forming a longline crown, the following rules are followed. Select and grow two or three branches of the first order. The distance up the trunk between them is 35 centimeters. All branches located above 1 meter from the ground are cut to half the length. Skeletal branches growing higher are pruned completely. And the trunk is shortened so that 25 centimeters remain above the main branches. After a few months, remove all branches growing at an acute angle to the main ones.

Another tier is formed next spring. Its branches are located 40 centimeters above the branches of the first order. All branches 60 centimeters long or more are cut to half the length. The trunk is shortened at the level of the skeletal branches of the second tier. In the future, cut off the branches that grow deeper into the crown.

Whitewashing, first feeding and watering

After pruning, the tree trunk and skeletal branches are treated with a lime solution. The procedure is aimed at destroying insects that have hibernated in the bark. She also effectively fights against potentially dangerous microflora.

Lime (1 kg) is diluted in 8 liters of water, 200 g of copper sulfate are added. The procedure is carried out in the first decade of April.

Before the first buds appear, the apricot is sprayed with urea. It is diluted at a ratio of 700 grams per 10 liters of water. Processing finally gets rid of overwintered pests, saturates the root soil with nitrogen.

Apricot trees are drought tolerant. But this does not mean that there is no need to water them at all. A tree growing in the middle lane on loamy soil requires 4 watering per year. If the soil is sandy, then water it more often up to 6 times. Watering should be plentiful in order to saturate the soil with moisture to a depth of 60 centimeters at a time. In dry soil, the apricot is watered before flowering. If the ground is wet, start watering 10-15 days after it.

Transfer

If it is necessary to transplant an apricot seedling from one part of the plot to another, then the most suitable time for transplanting an apricot is spring. During this period, the soil is sufficiently moistened, it will be easier for him to settle down in a new place. Transplant the tree before the buds begin to swell.

Agricultural technicians do not recommend exposing the root system during transplantation; the roots should be covered with an earthen clod. Also, do not disturb trees older than 3 years.

After transplanting, the apricot is watered with Kornevin's solution. It is diluted in a proportion of 5 grams of the drug per 5 liters of water. It is also necessary to cut the side branches 1/3 of the length. This will reduce the stress on the roots.


Spring planting of apricot

The apricot tree has a strong trunk, a well-developed root system and a spreading crown. The best time to land is early spring, second half of April, when the kidneys are still in an unawakened state. This tree is very sensitive to transplanting, the state of awakened buds when planting can have a detrimental effect on a young plant.

The trees sit down checkerboard pattern, when one tree from another should be at a distance of 3 meters, and the width between the rows is at least five meters.

Tips for a proper fit:

  1. It is better to prepare the pit for planting apricots in the autumn. The optimal sizes are 70 cm / 70 cm / 70 cm. After all, we must not forget that the size of the root system of a developing tree is twice the size of the crown.
  2. The bottom of the pit is covered with a drainage cushion, which will protect our tree from excess moisture. For this, crushed stone, gravel or small pieces of brick are well suited. Then prepared soil is poured into the pit, which consists of upper chernozem, humus and additives of wood ash or lime (depending on the type of soil) and ammonium nitrate. All this should be well mixed and covered with a layer of earth to prevent direct contact with the roots.
  3. A small elevation is made from the ground in the pit, on which the roots of the tree are set, they are well straightened and covered with the remaining earth. The apricot trunk is covered up to the level of the trunk neck so that the tree is on a small elevation, and the neck is not covered with earth.
  4. Around the circumference of the elevation, it is necessary to make a watering circle, after which it is necessary to water the tree abundantly with water. In this case, care must be taken that the water does not fall directly under the tree trunk, but spills over the circumference of the irrigation circle.
  5. This method of planting will protect the tree from stagnant water in the spring, increase the area for root growth and improve the supply of water and oxygen to the root system.

If, nevertheless, there is no confidence that the winter frosts will not damage the standard tree, it is better to arrange the planting of an apricot in slate form... For this, the trunk of the tree when planting is tilted to the ground at an angle of 35-40 degrees. The crown should be directed towards the south side of the horizon.

The crown is molded into one tier, the extra branches are cut out in the spring. This method of planting allows the crown of a tree in a stanza form to receive heat from the ground several times more than the crown of a standard apricot. This allows the thermophilic fruit tree survive the winter cold.


Apricot varieties

Apricot varieties for the Moscow region

Since Ukraine has a rather mild climate, apricots grow there almost everywhere, and they give a bountiful harvest, while often no one ever cuts or feeds them. The Moscow region has a colder climate, so not all varieties of apricot can be grown here, and besides, such a tree in this region needs good care. The best varieties for the Moscow region:

  1. Red-cheeked... This self-fertile variety is distinguished by its yield and resistance to diseases and frost. The spreading crown has a rounded shape. Large fruits, round-flat or ovoid, weigh about 50 grams and have an orange-golden color with a bright blush. Fruits are covered with a thin skin, fragrant pale orange pulp is sweet with a slight sourness. The fruits are eaten fresh, and they are also used to prepare jams, compotes and make dried fruits.
  2. Honey... This tall variety is productive and highly resistant to frost. Small yellow isosceles fruits are strewn with small red dots. Fruits are slightly pubescent. The fibrous, dense yellow flesh is quite sweet. The fruits are eaten fresh and used for the preparation of preparations.
  3. Northern triumph... The high-yielding variety is disease resistant. Large orange-yellow oval fruits weigh about 55 grams, there is a small greenery on the shady surface. There is pubescence on the middle thickness of the skin. The homogeneous orange pulp tastes good.
  4. Hardy... Such a self-fertile variety, resistant to diseases and pests, is distinguished by a stable and high yield. A large tree begins to bear fruit 5–6 years after planting in the garden. Medium flat-rounded fruits weigh about 45 grams, have an orange-golden color with a deep red blush. The skin is pubescent. The rich orange fragrant pulp is very sweet. The bone can be easily detached.
  5. Snegirek... The most winter-hardy variety, reaching a height of 150 cm. Such a self-fertile high-yielding variety is undemanding to the composition of the soil. However, it is easily affected by moniliosis and leaf spot. If stored properly, elastic fruits will not deteriorate until mid-winter.

Early varieties of apricot

Today, there are more than 50 varieties that are bred both in Russia and abroad. They are divided into 3 groups according to the ripening time. Early apricots are the first group, the fruits ripen in early July. Early varieties:

  1. Melitopol early... The winter-resistant variety is resistant to diseases. Crohn's high pyramidal shape. Large yellow-orange oval, slightly flattened fruits weigh about 60 grams. The fruit is covered with a thin skin, and its dense, fragrant fiber-free pulp is sweet.
  2. Lescore... This early maturing variety was bred by Czech breeders. Crohn's high obrantopyramidal shape. Medium fragrant fruits weigh about 45 grams and taste good. Easily becomes infected with moniliosis.
  3. Alyosha... Winter-resistant fruitful variety. The rich yellow round fruits are covered with small red dots, they weigh about 20 grams. The sweet-sour pulp is colored orange.
  4. Voronezh early... This hybrid cultivar was created using the Michurin cultivar Tovarishch and the Central Asian cultivar Akhrori. This dessert variety, partially self-fertile, is the earliest, average winter hardiness, small fruits weigh about 20 grams. Sweet fruits have a slight sourness, the bone can be easily separated from the pulp.
  5. Early of Morden... Frost-resistant Canadian variety. The tree begins to bear fruit systematically and abundantly from the second year. Medium fruits weigh about 50 grams, not very sweet, but the pit can be quickly separated from the orange pulp.

Also early varieties are Sambur early, Tsarsky, Iceberg, June, Alliance, Early Marusicha, Chervnevy, Veteran of Sevastopol.

Mid-season varieties

Fruit ripening occurs in the second half of July. Popular varieties:

  1. Polessky large-fruited... A fast-growing, productive winter-hardy variety is resistant to fungi. The shape of the crown is round. Delicate fragrant sweet-sour fruits weigh about 55 grams, they are rich orange with a red blush. The tree is not too tall, but the fruit can only be reached with a stepladder.
  2. Pineapple... The early ripening unpretentious widespread variety has a high yield. The crown is not very dense. Delicious large fruits are quite sweet. Easily infested with spotting. The fruits are eaten fresh and used for the preparation of preparations.
  3. Rattle... The variety is partially self-fertile for universal use. The yellow-green oval fruits, slightly compressed from the sides, do not have a blush. The dense yellow-orange flesh is very sweet. The bone can be easily removed from the pulp.
  4. Kuibyshev jubilee... This variety is resistant to drought, cold and fungi. Orange fruits are slightly flattened, they have a slight blush on the surface turned towards the sun. They weigh about 25 grams. A thin skin covers the orange juicy slightly fibrous sweet-sour flesh.
  5. Dessert... The variety is fruitful, winter-hardy, has a dense crown. Medium pale yellow sweet-sour fruits weigh about 30 grams. A thin skin covers the delicate flesh.

Also mid-season varieties are Botsadovsky, Zaporozhets, Shalamark, Sardonyx, Sheludko, Dessertny, Nadezhny, Michurinets, Yaltinets, Amursky, Aquarius, Monastyrsky, Molodezhny, Aviator, Petrel, Phelps, Olympus, Altair.

Late varieties of apricot

Fruit ripening is observed in August. Late varieties:

  1. Favorite... The variety is frost-resistant. Medium round, orange glossy fruits weigh about 30 grams. Juicy dense orange pulp has a very high taste.
  2. Spark... Such a productive variety is resistant to frost and some diseases. The tree begins to bear fruit early. The asymmetrical orange fruits are strewn with red dots and have a pink blush. They weigh about 45 grams. Juicy pulp is not very dense, sweet and sour.
  3. Red of Kiev... Ripens in the second decade of August. Self-fertile winter-hardy variety. He needs pollinators. Large, rich yellow sweet-sour fruits of wide oval shape weigh about 55 grams. They are eaten fresh, canned and dried.
  4. Twinkle... The frost-resistant variety has a spreading crown. The rounded flat orange fruits are almost completely covered with a deep red blush. They weigh about 25 grams. The sweet, dense orange-red pulp separates well from the stone.
  5. Success... This self-fertile hybrid has a very high frost resistance. It was bred using the Lewise, Comrade and Best Michurinsky varieties. The surface of a medium-sized yellow rounded fruit is covered with light red dots on the side facing the sun, weighing about 30 grams. The amber-yellow sweet-sour pulp has medium juiciness and separates well from the stone.

Also late varieties are Sirena, Kostyuzhensky, Denisyuk's Special, Kompotny, Gift, Surprise and Joy.



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